Valencia — The Cathedral
Between metro stations Av Del Cid and Angel Guimera 500m to the north-east of West parka stands sobor exquisite gothic cathedral of St. Mary, the official residence of the Archbishop of Valencia.
The dominant architectural style of the cathedral is the Catalan Gothic style, although there are elements of Romanesque, French gotiki, Renaissance and Baroque. So many styles could coexist in the same building on the grounds that it vozvodilas gradually over several centuries. Judging by the results of archaeological excavations on the site of the cathedral was Visigoth church, which was later replaced by a mosque. According to legend, in 1238 during the conquest of Valencia Christians (the Reconquista) mosque was osvyaschena into a Christian church. In 1262, the first bishop of Valencia, Andres de Albalat decided to destroy it and to build on the site ee Cathedral.
The most notable element of the cathedral schitayutsya east entrance, also called L'Almoina (12th century), a small northern chapel of Sant Jordi (13th century), north-western arcade Obra Nova (16th century), the western entrance to Los Apostoles (14c), the bell tower Mikalet (14c), South vhod Los Yerros (18c).
L'Almoina romanskom made in the style, and what is its fundamental difference from other parts of the cathedral, striking examples of Gothic architecture. Nekotorye consider it a work of architect Arnau Vidal and belongs to the years 1262-1270. However, the style of construction dovolno primitive for that period, which suggests that it was built a little earlier, in 1240, immediately after the conquest of Valencia, Aragon. Arch decorated with six archivolt standing in the six capitals and decorated with scenes from the Old Testament.
With storony chapel of Sant Jordi on the left side of the cathedral nahoditsya covered gallery, which is located just behind the opening in the area of Seoul arcade, Obra Nova, a work of art of the Renaissance architects epohi. It was supposed chto from this rostrum with three floors of arches mozhno will see the procession and execution. Construction of the arcade began in 1566 under the leadership of Miguel Gaspar Porcaro and Gregory.
West Portal Los Apostoles got svoe name from the shape of the Twelve Apostles, located at the entrance. We know that the architect of the cathedral was chasti Nicolas de Ancona, construction was completed in 1354. The decoration of the entrance is a three Archivolt on kotoryh sculpted statues of angels, prorokov, saints. The space above the door is decorated with a bas-relief with six apostles. Above the arch top on both sides of the statues of the apostles still shesti. The upper part of the facade is decorated with a window-rozoy, featuring the Star of David.
Mikalet belfry is probably the most characteristic landmark of Valencia. Its construction began in 1381 Andreu Julia, but she did not vposledstvii times rebuilt and restored. Bell tower is divided into four tiers, only the fourth floor of its décor. 206 stone steps up the narrow spiral staircase lead out to the observation deck, is huge with views of almost the entire city.
Next to the chapel is located south entrance los Yerros (from the Spanish hierro - «iron"), got its name from the iron bars directly in front of the entrance. This entry in the Italian Baroque style, much stands out for its magnificent architecture goroda decorative motifs. As planned by the architect's input was to create an optical illusion of space on a fairly small area. On each side of the aisle are three columns with decorated trunks and Corinthian capitals, between the columns are arranged niches with statues of St. Thomas and St. Peter Vilyanuevskogo Paschasius (the work of Francisco Stoltz). Above the arch is a bas-relief vhodnoy with an anagram of the Virgin Mary with angels and other ornaments typical of the rococo.
The interior of the cathedral can be identified with an octagonal dome vosemyu Gothic stained-glass windows with delicate patterns. The architecture of the dome and translucent alabaster windows soften the light shed on sredokrestiem. At the bottom of the sails fashioned four plaster figures of the apostles. Kupol bell crowned in 1805, which is currently not used.
Chapel of Santa Kalis (Holy Grail), proyti which is possible through the portal of Los Yerros, was intended for the chapter, hence her finery, which highlights the Gothic svod, at the base of which are figures of the twelve apostles. In the hall of the chapel is a relic of the same name - the Holy Grail, has come down to us presumably 1c BC
The most beautiful part of the main altar of the cathedral is located under the polygonal vault with six ribs. The altar has five windows and bolshih Ambulatory associated with the two side doors. Initially, in 1432 arch and the walls were decorated with ornamentom Miguel Alcaniz, but in 1469 his work was burned. Later, in 1474, Paolo de San Leocadio and Francisco Pagano again adorned the altar, this time in the style of the Renaissance. However, they had been hidden beneath afterwards the sumptuous Baroque ornamentation 1674-1682's hands Juan Perez Kastel.