Madrid — Main Square
The majestic main square or Plaza Mayor, Mr. Madrid, is a few hundred meters to the west from the Puerta del Sol in the place of junction of Calle Mayor, Calle de Atocha and the Calle de Toledo.
One of the most famous squares of Spain has the shape of a rectangle with sides of 200 to 100 meters. Plaza Mayor was built on the site of the old square Arrabal, which means the suburbs. Indeed, in those days, the area was outside the city walls, just behind the "Gate of Guadalajara." Initially, the construction of a new area of King Philip II commissioned the architect Juan de Herrera, but his project was not implemented. As a result, in 1617 a new Plaza Mayor was built by architect Juan Gómez de Mora. Initially, the new area is not very greatness, symmetrical facades of buildings, overlooks the square, were devoid of any fukrasheny.
Among other things, contributed two-story building bakery - Casa de Panaderiya. This house was built in 1590. Many houses in the Plaza Mayor, resting on wooden stilts, causing an area of constant fires occurred. The first major fire occurred in 1631, which affected the southern part of the area. In 1672, a new fire destroyed several homes, including Panaderiyu later recovered. In 1790, a major fire destroyed the eastern part of the Plaza Mayor. Restoration of the area was entrusted to the architect Juan de Villanueva. In accordance with the new project all the houses on the perimeter of the area were connected, they were made arched passages, wooden poles and piles, where possible, replaced by stone. Work on the reconstruction of the area was delayed for more than 60 years and was completed in 1853. Until now, the area is reached in the form which it was designed by Villanueva. Along the perimeter of the square is located on the same style of the house, the buildings have done a through-arch forming the nine gates of the Plaza Mayor.
The building is historically performed Panaderii not a normal role for the bakery. The fact that the court was closely associated with the grain commerce, and therefore at events on the Square (holidays, executions, bullfights) balconies of the building occupied by the members of the royal family and the noble lords. Inside the building on the top floor is the luxurious halls, which were given during the holidays magnificent receptions. Later, the building housed Panaderii Academy of Fine Arts, and then the history of the Academy. Now here is the city archive. In the Royal Salon Panaderii kept old frescos made by artists from different eras.
Opposite the bakery was built butcher - Casa de Karniseriya. The balconies of the building also among prestizhnyh during various events and shows in the area. In total, there were 477 on the balcony and access to the area, a place where distributed according to social status and opportunities finansovyh viewers.
During torzhestvennyh events around the perimeter of the area installed wooden multi-platform. In total, the area could vmestit about 50,000 spectators.
From the Plaza Mayor linked important historical sobytiya that took place in Madrid. In particular, in the main square was canonized Isidore, this event was the first mass event and, in fact, the opening of the square. Since then, every year 15 maya city celebrated the most important holiday - the Day of St. Isidore.
In 1621 took place in the square penalty Secretary Philip III Rodrigo Calderon. His dignified behavior during the execution posluzhilo addition of saying "proud as Calderon on the scaffold." On the area premiere of the play by Lope de Vega, Calderon de la Barca, Vélez de Guevara.
At the Plaza Mayor in the 17th century often carried out executions and auto-da-fe - the courts of the Inquisition of heretics. The most famous is the court perpetrated by the Inquisition at 1680g for 80 th heretics. Sozhzheny were 21 people at the stake. The king and queen as much as 12 chasov watched the eerie spectacle from the balcony Panaderii.
Plaza Mayor was also one of the first areas in Spain, where they spend the bullfight. One of the first was held in bullfights 1623g in honor of the Prince of Wales. In 1789 the square were the three most famous matador in the history of bullfighting - Pedro Romero, Pepe-Ilo and Kostilyares, the arena was decorated by the great Goya. Last boy with the bulls in the square was held October 18, 1846.
In the center of the square is the bronzovaya equestrian statue of Philip III. Statue, created by order of Philip III in the 1616g is rabotoy Italian sculptor Giambologna and his apprentice Pietro Tacca. However, it was not immediately installed on the area. Prior to 1848, the sculpture stood in the country park of the Casa de Campo, then Isabella II ordered to install it in the Plaza Mayor. Performing rasporyazheniya dragged on for 26 years and only in 1874 the equestrian statue of Felipe III nyneshnee has taken its place on the square.
From 1929 on Sundays nA area appears several hundred stalls selling postage stamps, coins and medals. It brings together thousands filatelistov and numismatists.
Other attractions in Madrid:
The Prado Museum
The Royal Palace
Catedral de la Almudena de Madrid
Museo Nacional Centro de arte Reina Sofia
Plaza de Cervantes
Puerta del Sol
Iglesia San Francisco el Grande
Real Jardin Botanico
Iglesia de San Antonio
Puerta de Alcala
Museo Casa Natal de Cervantes de Alcala de Henares
Puerta de Toledo
Puerta de los Martires